Ellura Sanctuary, Swan Reach, SA, 5354
    
Stat'NotesThumbnails: 129.   39 native species listed, with 20 from Ellura
Crust (Biocrust) - Crust (Biocrust) - Crust (Biocrust)
Crust
Biocrust
Crust
Biocrust
Crust
Microphytic Crust
Na
em
Other Common NamesCryptobiotic Crust, Cryptogamic Crust, Duricrust & Microbiotic Crust

The Microphytic Crust is an incredibly important structure.
While not a single species, this seemed to be the best place to highlight it's value to Ellura.
Our friends at Entwood have a nice write up on it:
On this photo you can see a chunk has been dug out and turned over (by an animal we assume).
It's difficult to see normally, but this highlights how thick it is. You can see how lacking in nutrients the soil underneath is, and how rich in life the Microphytic Crust is.
While the common name of Duricrust is also used, it's a bit of a misnomer on Ellura. Technically duricrust contains more minerals and is harder, while the crust we have at Ellura (and seen in the surrounding area) appears to be mainly organic.
Peeled Back

Fungi (Fungi) - Sac Fungi (Ascomycota) - Lichenised Fungi (Lecanoromycetes)
Lichens
Agyriales
Lichen
Thelotremataceae
Mouldy Milk
Diploschistes ocellatus
Na
em
 
Young
Fruiting & Size
Lichens
Lecanorales
Lichen
Parmeliaceae
Green Cups
Flavoparmelia rutidota
Na
em
 
On branch, profile
On trunk, close up, ~1-10mm
On trunk, above
Lichens
Lecanorales
Lichen
Parmeliaceae
Green Fans
Xanthoparmelia cheelii
Na
em
 
Lichens
Lecanorales
Lichen
Parmeliaceae
Green Noodles
Xanthoparmelia convoluta
Na
em
 
Patch
Topside
Under
Size
Lichens
Lecanorales
Lichen
Parmeliaceae
Brown Noodles
Xanthoparmelia neodelisei
Na
em
Looks a bit like emu droppings when walking past.
Lichens
Lecanorales
Lichen
Parmeliaceae
Resurrection Lichen
Xanthoparmelia semiviridis
Na
em
SynonymChondropsis semiviridis

This is a most remarkable species, and was probably the hook that started my interest in wildlife.
During the dry, this looks like dried up leaf litter scattered on the ground. It's very light and gets blown around by the wind.
You'd swear it's dead, but then add water (rain) and your specimen will magically come back to life, softening & greening up!
Moist
Partially Dried
Several Moist
Lichens
Lecanorales
Lichen
Psoraceae
Salmon Flakes
Psora decipiens
Na
em
 
Lichens
Teloschistales
Lichen
Physciaceae
Polka Dot Limestone
Buellia georgei
Na
em
 
Close up
Patch & Size
Lichens
Teloschistales
Lichen
Physciaceae
White Cups
Physcia rolandii
Na
em
 
Lichens
Teloschistales
Lichen
Teloschistaceae
Orange Buttons
Jackelixia filsonii
Na
em
SynonymXanthoria filsonii
 
Patch
Patch
Size
Lichens
Teloschistales
Lichen
Teloschistaceae
Orange Cups
Jackelixia streimannii
Na
a
SynonymXanthoria streimannii
 
Lichens
Teloschistales
Lichen
Teloschistaceae
Orange Eyelashes
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus
Na
ema
 
Size
Lichens
Teloschistales
Lichen
Teloschistaceae
Grassy Buttons
Teloschistes sieberianus
Na
a
 

Fungi (Fungi) - Sac Fungi (Ascomycota) - Cup Fungi (Leotiomycetes)
Earth Tongues
Geoglossales
Earth Tongue
Geoglossaceae
Earth Tongue
Geoglossum sp
Na
a
Thank you Robert Lawrence for identifying this species for us
 
"Front" or Eastern Side
"Rear" or Western Side
Height ~30mm
Cup Fungi
Helotiales
Cup Fungus
Helotiaceae
Orange Cup Fungus
Discinella terrestris
Na
a
Other Common NameEarth Buttons

Thank you Michal Dutkiewicz for identifying this species for us
 
Small Patch, ~2-10mm heads
Cupping & Texture
Profile

Fungi (Fungi) - Sac Fungi (Ascomycota) - Disk Fungi (Pezizomycetes)
Disk Fungi
Pezizales
Cup Fungus
Pezizaceae
Brown Cup Fungus
Peziza cf repanda
Na
a
These are small examples, ~35mm across.
Disk Fungi
Pezizales
Disk Fungus
Pyronemataceae
Smooth Disk Fungus
Aleurina cf ferruginea
Na
a
This example is ~10mm wide

Fungi (Fungi) - Basidio (Basidiomycota) - Mushroom-forming Fungi (Agaricomycetes)
Gilled Fungi
Agaricales
Mushroom
Agaricaceae
Bird's Nest Fungus
Cyathus stercoreus
Na
em
The little black seed like things in the middle are actually spore casings. And they rely on a rain drops hitting them, bouncing them out of the parent cup to spread the spores and reproduce. That's just cool.
Troop
Baby
Immature
Profile
Mature
Old
Gilled Fungi
Agaricales
Mushroom
Agaricaceae
Puffball
Lycoperdon scabrum
Na
em
 
Young, ~15mm diameter
Older
Finished
Gilled Fungi
Agaricales
Mushroom
Agaricaceae
Puffball
Vascellum pratense
Na
ema
 
Young
"I'm sure there's a door here somewhere"
Gilled Fungi
Agaricales
Mushroom
Amanitaceae
Golden Mushroom
Amanita sp
Na
a
Other Common NameSatin Mushroom

This species is in the Grisella Group
According to fia-3-basidio-agarico-I.pdf
"The species in this group are difficult to separate using macroscopic features"
We were able to monitor this specimen daily to record it's rapid growth, as well as see the earlier stages of the one next to it once the first was found.
As such, the photo's are in chronological order.
Unusually (compared to other mushrooms we've found), this one wasn't eaten by springtails. So many other species we saw one day and were gone the next.
Whole, ~60mm wide
Gills, using a mirror
Just crowning (different specimen)
Starting to split, 2nd day
Stem, ~16mm
Splitting further, 3rd day
Height, ~60mm
Starting to age, above
Starting to age, profile
Shrivelled up, 14th day
Gilled Fungi
Agaricales
Mushroom
Amanitaceae
Vermilion Grisette
Amanita xanthocephala
Na
a
 
Profile
Above, ~20mm diameter
Gilled Fungi
Agaricales
Mushroom
Hygrophoraceae
Red Mushroom
Hygrocybe miniata
Na
a
Thank you Karin Elizabeth Dawson for identifying this species for us

Thank you Michal Dutkiewicz for helping with the identification of this species
 
Young, profile
Patch
Older, profile, ~18mm, with springtail
Gills, with mirror
Gills, profile
Older, profile
Being eaten by springtails
Gilled Fungi
Agaricales
Split Gill
Schizophyllaceae
Split Gill
Schizophyllum commune
Na
em
 
Several, above
Several, under
Close up
Gilled Fungi
Agaricales
Mushroom
Tricholomataceae
Red Mushroom
Laccaria sp
Na
a
Thank you Karin Elizabeth Dawson for identifying this species for us
 
Profile
Above
Gills
Gilled Fungi
Agaricales
Mushroom
Tricholomataceae
Nargan's Bonnet
Mycena cf nargan
Na
a
Thank you Karin Elizabeth Dawson for identifying this species for us
 
Profile
Above
Gills
A Pair, profile
A Pair, Gills
GloeophyllalesBracket
Gloeophyllaceae
Brown Bracket
Gloeophyllum sp
Na
em
Thank you Mark Ridgeway for identifying this species for us

Probably the most beautiful fungus we've found; beautiful ochre colours.
These photos are of different specimens in (what we think is) age sequence.
Youngest? Top
Under
Middle Aged? Top
Under
Size
Old? Top
Under
Ancient? Top
Under
Petrified? Top
Under
GomphalesCoral
Gomphaceae
Cauliflower Coral Fungi
Ramaria capitata var capitata
Na
a
 
Pored Fungi
Polyporales
Pored Fungus
Polyporaceae
Scarlet Bracket
Pycnoporus coccineus
Na
em
Other Common NameOrange Bracket Fungus

Thank you Karin Elizabeth Dawson for identifying this species for us
 
Above
Under
Same Speciment, 6m before, above
Profile
In seam
SebacinalesSebacinaceae
Sebacinaceae
Ground Hugging Fungus
Sebacinaceae sp
Na
a
Thank you Dr Tom May for identifying this species for us

Dr Tom May said "This could be a Sebacina or related genus". But microscopic examination is required to differentiate

Fungi (Fungi) - Basidio (Basidiomycota) - Ball Fungi (Basidiomycetes)
Ball Fungi
Boletales
Earth Ball
Sclerodermataceae
Horse Dung Fungus
Pisolithus arhizus
Na
m
 
A good common name
Ball Fungi
Boletales
Earth Ball
Sclerodermataceae
Earthball
Scleroderma citrinum
Na
a
 
Complete side
Split side
Surface texture
Inside Split
Coral Fungi
Cantharellales
Coral Fungus
Clavariaceae
Yellow Club
Ramariopsis simplex
Na
a
SynonymClavaria amoena & Clavulinopsis amoena

Other Common NameYellow Fingers
 
Young
Older, drying
A week later
Size, ~20mm
Fungi
Cortinariales
Mushroom
Cortinariaceae
Spectacular Rustgill
Gymnopilus junonius
Na
a
Other Common NamesLaughing Gym or Laughing Jim
 
Whole
Surface texture
Gills

Fungi (Fungi) - Basidio (Basidiomycota) - Rust Fungi (Pucciniomycetes)
Rusts
Pucciniales
Bluebush Rust
Aecidium
Bluebush Rust
Aecidium sp
Na
em
Thank you Dr Tom May for identifying this species for us

It is growing on Rosy Bluebush (Maireana erioclada)
Graham Patterson said "This is one of the spore-producing life cycle stages of a rust fungus. The different stages have in the past been given different names and this would be called a species of Aecidium. But now that the names are beginning to be sorted out this would probably be a Puccinia species."

Fungi (Fungi) - Chytridio (Chytridiomycota) - Rust Fungi (Chytridiomycetes)
Rusts
Chytridiales
Crowfoot Rust
Synchytriaceae
Common Crowfoot Rust
Synchytrium papillatum
If
em
This rust is growing on Common Crowfoot (Erodium cicutarium) which is an introduced species.
We believe each species of this type of fungus evolves to only grow on one plant species.
As such, this species of fungus must also be introduced?

Protozoa (Protozoa) - Amoebas (Amoebozoa) - Plasmodial Slime Molds (Myxogastrea)
Slime Molds
Liceida
Slime Mold
Tubiferaceae
Red Raspberry Slime Mould
Tubifera cf ferruginosa
Na
a
Other Common NameSlime Mould

Thank you Teresa Van Der Heul for confirming the identification of this species

We thought someone had dropped a lolly on the ground, and it turned out to be one of the most primitive life forms we've discovered.
Slime Molds
Myxogastrea
Slime Mold
Myxogastrea
Black Slime Mould
Myxogastrea sp
Na
em
Thank you Teresa Van Der Heul for helping with the identification of this species

This is the only slime mould we've seen on Ellura, but until we see it again and get a microscopic examination of it, we won't be able to identify it further.
Teresa said "I do not believe this is Tubulifera sp. due to the way it is dehiscencing on the right; nor do I think its Lamproderma sp. as there is no clear iridescence showing, which leaves me to think it may be a Badhamia sp. but without microscopic examination I am not prepared to name it"
Patch
Close up
Slime Molds
Physarida
Slime Mold
Physaraceae
Sulphur Slime Mould
Fuligo septica
Na
a
Other Common NamesDog's Vomit Slime Mould, Flowers of tan or Scrambled Egg slime

As you can see from the photo's, transitioning from fruiting bodies to "dried up" is incredibly fast. 15 hours, from 19:40 one evening to 10:40 next morning.
Close up
Whole, ~100mm wide
Whole, 15 hours laster next morning
Close up

Copyright © 1996- Brett & Marie Smith. All Rights Reserved.
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