Ellura Sanctuary, Swan Reach, SA, 5354
    
Stat'NotesThumbnails: 474.   48 native species listed, with 31 from Ellura
Plant (Plantae) - Other Small Plants
ApialesCarrot
Apiaceae
Grey Hare's Ear
Bupleurum semicompositum
I
em
Thank you Darren Schmitke for identifying this species for us

A simple thank you just isn't enough. We didn't even know where to start with this species and Darren spent many evenings investigating it. After we had given up, and Darren almost had, he found it. We were elated and disappointed at the same time. Elated the puzzle was solved, but disappointed that after all that work it turned out to be an introduced species. Here's hoping that by being on this web site it helps others know they can remove it; and Darren's work will be put to good use.
It occurs primarily in disturbed locations on Ellura and may be useful to reduce erosion while natives reclaim their ground. It's heaviest where we've removed heavy investations of onion weed, but doesn't have anywhere near the destructive properties of onion weed. As such, it's weak and natives are stronger. It is classed as "Naturalised" (a term we despise) and an "Environmental Weed" (ie it doesn't impact farmers crops).
The flowers are tiny; and go against the rule of thumb of small flowers being native. They are petalless (petals 0). The apparant petals are actually 5 sepals which start green and turn red with age. The flower has 5 stamen. The 5 bracts (leaf like structures) are toothed and form a cup holding up to about 8 flowers.
The flower heads are on varying length stalks (0 to ~10mm). A flower head can throw 5 stalks with more flower heads; in fact it'll even throw another "branch".
The plant is almost grass like, with the base of each leaf curving round the stem at least at each branch. The branches are hexegon.
The structure tends to create a ceme of flowers (ie one branch is a flower head, the other goes higher until another fork or terminates in a flowerhead).
The flowers are on top of the fruit, which splits in 2 when it dries; and goes a pale lilac colour.
While trying to describe this plant one realises why there are so many botanical terms to describe the huge array of features a plant can exhibit; in a succinct way, unlike this novel
Whole, Bushy (~150mm tall)
Whole, Small, Thin
Whole, Small, Stocky
Whole, Finishing
Patch, green, above
Patch, drying, profile
Structure
Leaf
New Flower Head Forming, with buds
Buds (~0.5mm wide each)
Bud Opening (right)
Flower Head throwing 5 more
Flower Head Stalks, profile
Flower Head throwing a Branch
Flower Open (centre)
Fruits, Flowers Finished
Toothed Bracts
Fruits (~1mm wide each)
Fruits, profile, on stalks
Fruits Splitting in 2
Fruit Dried
ApialesCarrot
Apiaceae
Native Carrot
Daucus glochidiatus
LC
em
Other Common NamesAustralian Carrot or Austral Carrot
 
Whole, Mature
Seedling
Whole, young
Leaf
Leaves & Seed Pods
Tiny Flower -EXTRA-
Seed Pod
Split Seed Pod
AsparagalesAsparagus
Asparagaceae
Blue Squill
Chamaescilla corymbosa
VU
ma
There does seem to be some colour variation with the flowers, from pale (almost white) to dark (almost purple). The smaller variations we've seen with our eyes are hard to notice with the camera. They do seem to darken with age as well.
Leaves are between 30-100mm long and 10mm wide. Flowers are 25mm wide.
In bud
Leaf back
Bud going blue
Bud almost opening
Bud opening
Flower opening, above
Flower opening, profile
Flower, darker
Flower, above
Flower, profile
Flower, under
Flower, finishing
AsparagalesAsparagus
Asparagaceae
Scented Mat-rush
Lomandra effusa
LC
em
Other Common NameScented Irongrass

Funny how some specimens take your interest. We found a small group of these nearly a year ago and have been monitoring them ever since; waiting in anticipation for them to flower so we could identify them.
Strangely one is left alone yet the other 4 or 5 are constantly eaten right down.
The flowers have a lovely aroma, but watch your eyes if you smell them. The leaves are very stiff and sharp, nearly spines. Cream flowers with 3 petals + 3 sepals (looks like 6 petals)
Leaves are long, thin, ribbed all around and a half circle in cross section. Reed like. Heavily toothed (but not easily visible; a magnifying glass helps). They dry on the tip to a 2-pronged fork.
It's hard to imagine why anything would find them palatable. We surmise it can only be kangaroos as no other animal would be able to get to the top leaves without injuring itself; and we've seen kangaroos eating Westringia rigida, so it's not a stretch to see them enjoying these as well.
Whole, in flower
Whole, profile
Whole, above
Whole, small, eaten
Whole, large, eaten
Leaf, back (or front?)
Leaf, profile
Leaf, front (or back?)
Leaf, cross section
Leaf, tips -EXTRA-
Bud
Male Flower, isometric view
Male Flower, front
Male Flower, profile
Male Flower stalk
Mass of Male Flowers
AsparagalesAsparagus
Asparagaceae
Mallee Fringe-lily
Thysanotus baueri
LC
em
Other Common NameFringed Violet

A small single stemmed herb. Leaves are like grass and die off early. While the flowers look as though they have 6 petals, in actual fact they have 3 striped sepals (paler and thinner) and 3 striped petals. The strange petals with tassels (fimbriae - latin for fringes) are lilac in colour. The flowers
ONLY LAST A FEW HOURS!
So I was very popular when we saw a lot of them about 100m from the car and I said "I'll photograph those tomorrow"; because I was tired at the time.
It's quite bizarre when you realise there were 20+ plants all flowering at the same time, just for that one day. Fortunately; another 5 popped up in the same area later and I was able to redeem myself
Seedling
Whole in Bud
Whole, Flower Opening
Whole in Flower
In a Tar Bush -EXTRA-
In a Wallaby Bush
In a Zygophyllum
Bud
Flower Opening Front
Flower Opening Back
Flower Open
Flower with a Bee
Flower Closing
Flowers Closing
Flowers Closed
Flowers Closed
Flowers Dried
Seeding -EXTRA-
AsparagalesAsparagus
Asparagaceae
Twining Fringe-lily
Thysanotus patersonii
LC
ma
Similar Species: Mallee Fringe-lily
Flowers look very similar to the Mallee Fringe-lily, but as you can see the plant habit is totally different.
As it's common name indicates, it's a climber and wraps itself around other plant stems to gain height (~200mm or so). Also snakes around on the ground flowering.
We weren't able to find any leaves.
Stem
Habit
Buds
Flower, above
Flower, profile
Flower, under
Multiple flowers
AsparagalesHypoxis
Hypoxidaceae
Tiny Star
Pauridia glabella var glabella
LC
em
SynonymHypoxis glabella var glabella

Other Common NameStar Grass

While it looks like the flowers have 6 petals, they are 3 petals and 3 sepals.
Whole
Flower, Bud & Leaves
Flower, Above
Flower, Profile
Perspective, with Boot Toe
AsparagalesIris
Iridaceae
Thread Iris
Moraea setifolia
I
em
Other Common NameTwo-leaved Cape Tulip

Invasive throughout the region. Difficult to eradicate due to their thin leaf.
Wombats like the bulbs and plough the soil searching for the them. This is not natural behaviour for them and is very destructive to the soil crust and natural order of things.
Competes with native grasses.
Has a single pale purple flower and two grass-like leaves (often one dries early leaving only one leaf).
While it looks nothing like it many people think it's nut grass. Probably because the bulbs are like nuts and the few leaves are very grass like.
The flower is a dead give away it's not grass.
Kangaroos eat the dried leaves in summer. Possibly because other food is more scarce; or because it's weaker & easier to chew once it's died. It's leaves are incredibly strong & thin. When trying to pull out other weeds if you accidentally grab a Thread Iris leaf as well, you'll have no chance of getting either out.
The green leaf is toxic to stock. Consumption of 1kg of green leaves will kill a cow within 24 hours. Wombats don't seem to be able to digest it very easily, so fill up on it and can starve to death if native grass food sources are not available.
Flowering
Bulbs -EXTRA-
AsparagalesIris
Iridaceae
Guildford Grass
Romulea rosea var australis
I
a
 
Whole
Flower, above
Flower, profile
AsparagalesIris
Iridaceae
Guildford Grass
Romulea rosea var communis
I
a
 
Whole
Flower, above
Flower, under
AsparagalesIris
Iridaceae
Guildford Grass
Romulea rosea var reflexa
I
a
 
Whole
Flower, above
Flower, profile
AsparagalesGrass Tree
Xanthorrhoeaceae
Onion Weed
Asphodelus fistulosus
I
em
Other Common NamesNOT MORE ONION WEED ! Onion-leafed Asphodel or Pink Asphodel

#1 Enemy: Loves 250mm/yr rainfall. We have it under control.
Will decimate an area, regardless of grazing, killing saltbush, zygophylum, etc, as it goes.
Vigorous; will germinate, flower and seed within 3 weeks in spring. 90%+ of seed germinates in first year.
Resilient: never leave removed plants on the ground. They will flower & seed (out of the ground)! Hard to poison. Needs good wetting agent.

We've written a discussion paper on this to help you control your outbreak.
Click here to download (it's about 2.7mb) Updated 11 AM, 06 April 2014
Flowering
Flower
AsparagalesGrass Tree
Xanthorrhoeaceae
Blue Grass-lily
Caesia calliantha
VU
ma
While it looks like the flowers have 6 petals, they are 3 petals and 3 sepals.
Whole
Leaves
New Bud Stalk
Mature Bud Stem
Buds
Dark Blue Flowers
Light Blue Flower
Flower, Profile
Flower, Front
Flower, Back
Flower, Finished
AsparagalesGrass Tree
Xanthorrhoeaceae
Black-anther Flax-lily
Dianella revoluta
LC
ema
Other Common NamesBlueberry Lily, Blue Flax-lily or Spreading Flax-lily

While it looks like the flowers have 6 petals, they are 3 petals and 3 sepals.
Whole
Under Flower
Over Flower
Flower Stem
AsteralesBellflower
Campanulaceae
Bluebell
Wahlenbergia sp
LC
ema
Other Common NameBlue-bell

These are very hard to differentiate between species.
They vary greatly within species, so "keys" overlap.
As such, next spring we will focus on individual specimens; photographing and taking note of more "keys" each time to hopefully identify them down to species level.
Type 1, Lower Plant
Type 1, Flower
Type 1, Pod
Type 2, Whole Plant
Type 2, Lower Plant
Type 2, Flower Opening
AsteralesGoodenia
Goodeniaceae
Cut-leaf Goodenia
Goodenia pinnatifida
LC
em
Other Common NamesCutleaf Goodenia, Mother Ducks or Scrambled Eggs
 
Whole
Basal Leaves
Basal Leaves
New Flower & Pod
Flower Opening
Flower Open
Striped Fruit, Profile
Ovoid Fruit, End
AsteralesGoodenia
Goodeniaceae
Small-flower Goodenia
Goodenia pusilliflora
LC
em
 
Whole
Basal Leaf
Flower, front
Flower, profile
AsteralesGoodenia
Goodeniaceae
Sticky Goodenia
Goodenia varia
LC
em
 
Whole
Leaves
Flower, Bud & Structure
Flower
Flower
AsteralesGoodenia
Goodeniaceae
Silver Goodenia
Goodenia willisiana
LC
em
Other Common NameMallee Goodenia

Similar Species: Silverleaf Nightshade

Would never have guessed this was a Goodenia until we finally saw it flower.
They are perennial (live longer than 2 years) but ours get eaten &/or dry up, leaving only the root stock in the ground over summer. This makes them seem like annuals.
Plants are up to about 60mm in diameter and very variable; from silver to pale green.
The flowers are short lived, but typical Goodenia flowers, yellow with 5 petals. They last about a week (hence missed them last spring, and still don't have many bud photos!) and are small, not at all obvious like Velleia, etc.
But the leaves are so different, we thought it was some sort of Nightshade (Solanaceae).
With our specimens, the pale green leaves are basal (only come from the ground / root) with a fine woolly texture that makes them look silver; which varies with age. There is a bit more wool on the back than the face of the leaves. They also look as though they have thorns on the leaf edges, but in fact they are entire (plain, smooth edged); the woolly hairs tuft up looking like spines. Apprantly they can be toothed.
Leaves start out rolled & linear and then open out; some even become spatulate (like a spoon / spatula)
Our flowering specimens are in a sparse patch of about 20 on the south west side of a mallee tree. We lost our other patch which was in the open and seemed greener (the new camera has GPS, so that'll never happen again)
Whole, Wide Leaves
Whole, Spatulate Leaf
Whole, Old Stem
Size (flower ~10mm & plant ~60mm wide)
Whole, Medium Leaves
Whole, Narrow Leaves
3 Plants
3 Plants, Darker
Bushy? NO! ~5 Clumped Together
Structure
Sparse Patch
Rolled Leaf Opened Leaf
Woolly Teeth, they don't hurt
Smooth Woolly Edge - Oxymoron
Pointy Woolly Edge - Oxymoron
Bud? Thats our story and sticking to it
Flower & Stem, profile
Flower Petals, profile
Flower, above
Flower, above
AsteralesGoodenia
Goodeniaceae
Toothed Velleia
Velleia arguta
LC
em
Other Common NamesGrassland Velleia or Spur Velleia

A very unusual looking yellow flower, with 5 petals, on the end of long stems.
3 of the petals lay out flat, with 2 curved upwards. The petals have frilled edges.
Whole, Profile
Bud & Leaf
Flower, Front
Flower, Back
Flower, Profile
BrassicalesMustard
Brassicaceae
Flax-leaf Alyssum
Alyssum linifolia
I
em
Thank you Renate & Glenys for identifying this species for us

A very strange plant with brown, circular, flat, disk fruits.
These discs dry to a paper thin shell, then drop the two seeds contained within.
Also has strange tufted short hairs growing from it's leaves & stem.
Whole, Profile
Whole, Above
Patch, Dropping Seed
Leaf
Bud, Flower & Fruit - Above
Flower - Profile
Fruit
Fruit Stem
Seed in Pod
BrassicalesMustard
Brassicaceae
Wild Turnip
Brassica tournefortii
I
em
Other Common NamesAfrican Mustard, Asian Mustard, Long fruited Wild Turnip, Mediterranean Turnip, Sahara Mustard or Tournefort's Birdrape

Not a major problem at Ellura. Removed when found.
One of the few plants than can grow under Mallee.
Small yellow flower, long green seed pods. Tall, straggly, hairy stems with lobed leaves staying near the ground.
BrassicalesMustard
Brassicaceae
Wards Weed
Carrichtera annua
I
em
Invasive throughout the region. Difficult to eradicate as it's in such hugh numbers. The areas we have weeded have shown a big return of native forbs.
Seedlings are purple before turning luscious green.
Grazed by wombats & roos.
Replaces native grass.
Purple Seedling
Small Flower (~5mm wide)
Dried Seed
BrassicalesMustard
Brassicaceae
Smooth Mustard
Sisymbrium erysimoides
I
em
Other Common NamesFrench rocket or Mediterranean rocket
 
Whole
Whole
Small Patch
Large Patch
Leaves
Compressed Leaf
Buds & Flowers
Buds & Flowers
Flower, Above
Flowers, Profile
Flowers & Seed Pods
BrassicalesMignonette
Resedaceae
Cut-leaf Mignonette
Reseda luteola
I
m
Other Common NamesDyer's Mignonette, Dyer's Rocket, Dyer's Weed, Mignonette, Weld, Wild Mignonette, Yellow Weed

Forms a large round rosette, then shoots tall seed heads.
Very deep roots which easily break near the rosette to later recover.
Manual removal requires as much root as possible to be removed.
We remove at least 100mm.
Rosette
In Seed
CaryophyllalesIce Plant
Aizoaceae
Inland Pigface
Carpobrotus modestus
LC
ema
Large triangular, green to purple, succulent, vertical leaves.
Brilliant purple flower with white centre.
Sprawling habit that can completely cover square metres of ground.
Whole
Flower
CaryophyllalesCarnation
Caryophyllaceae
Mouse-ear Chickweed
Cerastium glomeratum
I
ema
A hairy leaved weed. A white flower that has 5 petals which are deeply lobed and can look like 10 petals.
On Ellura it is more prostrate than in the Adelaide Hills.
Prostrate
Upright
New Flower + Bud
Flower, fully open
Fruit
CaryophyllalesCarnation
Caryophyllaceae
Mallee Catchfly
Silene apetala
I
em
Other Common NameSand Catchfly

Tall straggly weed with tiny flowers.
Basal Leaves Seed Pod & Stem
Top Leaves & Seed Pod
Stalk & Leaves
Top Pods & Seeds
Flower & Bud -EXTRA-
CaryophyllalesSundew
Droseraceae
Tall Sundew
Drosera auriculata
VU
ma
A very strange, dainty, carnivorous plant.
When the plant dies, it goes completely black, as though poisoned.
What I used to call the "mouths" are actually it's leaves!
Whole
Growing Stem
New Leaf
New Leaf Opening
Leaf, Front
Leaf, Back
Male Midge being Consumed
Trapped Leaf Hopper
Bud Opening
Bud, Profile
Bud, Above
Flower, Above
Flower, Profile
Flower, Fruit Forming
Dried up Flowers
Season's Over
CaryophyllalesSundew
Droseraceae
Hooker's Sundew
Drosera hookeri
Na
a
A small sundew with white flowers. It has basal leaves which are different shape to the stem leaves.
At maturity it stands at under 100mm tall & 30mm wide. The flowers are about 10mm across.
The leaves are a shield shape, which is diagnostic. It's easier to see their shape from the back.
As with other sundews, the front of the leaf is covered with stems tipped in sticky sap that attracts insects. When one of these stems is moved by an insect the other stems move towards it to ensnare the insect, and then contract to the middle of the leaf to absorb the insect juices.
Young Plant
Habit, Growin Plant
New Leaf Buds
Leaf, front
Leaf, back
Water Drops
Larger Plant, habit
Bud
Flower, above
Flower, under
CaryophyllalesPurslane
Portulacaceae
Pink Purslane
Calandrinia calyptrata
LC
em
Other Common NameSmall-leaved Parakeelya
 
Whole
Structure
Leaves
Buds
CaryophyllalesPurslane
Portulacaceae
Dryland Purslane
Calandrinia eremaea
LC
em
Other Common NameSmall Purslane
 
Whole -EXTRA-
Flower -EXTRA-
Flower Back -EXTRA-
CucurbitalesGourd
Cucurbitaceae
Paddymelon
Citrullus colocynthis
I
m
Other Common NamePaddy Melon

These can grow much larger than shown here. But this is a good comparision between the smooth and prickly paddymelons, as well as a mallee leaf
Fruit
Fruit, compared with large glove
CucurbitalesGourd
Cucurbitaceae
Prickly Paddymelon
Cucumis myriocarpus
I
em
Other Common NamePaddy Melon
 
Fruit
FabalesLegume
Fabaceae or Leguminosae
Native Lilac
Hardenbergia violacea
RA
ma
Other Common NameHappy Wanderer
 
Leaves & Vines
Buds & Flowers
FabalesLegume
Fabaceae or Leguminosae
Scarlet Runner
Kennedia prostrata
RA
ma
Other Common NameRunning Postie
 
Leaf & Vine
Flower, profile
Flower, back
Flower, above
Flower, centre
FabalesLegume
Fabaceae or Leguminosae
Burr Medic
Medicago polymorpha
I
ema
Other Common NamesCreeping Burr, Medic Clover, Rough Medic, Toothed Medic, Burr Clover, Toothed Burr Clover or Trefoil
 
Whole
Leaf & Old Flower
Flower, front
Flower, profile
FabalesLegume
Fabaceae or Leguminosae
Small-leaf Burr Medic
Medicago praecox
I
em
Other Common NamesPlain Trefoil or Small-leaved Burr Medic
 
Several
Leaf
Seed
FabalesLegume
Fabaceae or Leguminosae
Subterraneum Clover
Trifolium subterraneum
I
a
Other Common NameSubterranean Trefoil
 
Patch in flower
Habit
Leaf (~15mm wide)
Leaf, under
Flower (~5x3mm wide)
Flower, profile
GentianalesGentian
Gentianaceae
Red Centaury
Centaurium erythraea
I
a
Similar Species: Branched Centaury
You can see here that Red Centaury's habit is quite different to both Branched Centaury & Spike Centaury, but the flowers look identical from above.
The basal leaves stay green during flowering while the other two dry up quickly.
This species is also larger and more lucious than the other two.
Whole, habit
Seedling
Basal Leaves
Flowers
Flower, Buds + Sepals
GentianalesGentian
Gentianaceae
Branched Centaury
Centaurium tenuiflorum
I
ema
Similar Species: Spike Centaury
Can be difficult to distinguish from Spike Centaury on habit alone; particularly for small plants withonly one stem and one flower. However, the comparison of the sepals of the 3 similar plants here shows how unique Branched Centaury is from the other two with no distance between the tip of the sepals and the separation/bend of the petals.
Whole
Habit + Buds
Basal Leaves
Flower
Flower + Sepals
GentianalesGentian
Gentianaceae
Spike Centaury
Schenkia australis
LC
ema
SynonymsCentaurium spicatum, Schenkia spicatum

Similar Species: Branched Centaury
This is one of the more tricky plants to separate out from it's introduced cousins. We have 3 different species, on this web site, which on initial inspection all look the same. We've waited two years to be sure that we actually had the native variety at Ellura, as our single stemmed & flower specimen was not big enough to be sure. But this year (2016) the weather caused a mass germination of very healthy plants.
All 3 can occur together, so it's important to identify each specimen before removing the introduced species.
S. australis has a lop sided growth habit; such that one branch has a flower, and it's paired branch grows as a stem. As such, one stem and one flower cann't exhibit this habit.
The other 2 both branch equally with flowers on the ends of the branches.
This is a generalised habit, though, it does not show on every single pair of branches.
It is said that this habit gives a "raceme" like appearance. Our experience is that, while true, there are not enough flowers to show this habit clearly. But we do find the weeds exhibit much more of a canopy type habit.
The side shot of the flower also shows a gap between the ends of the sepals & the turning of the petal. This is the same as C. erythraea, but different to C. tenuiflorum. We found C. erythraea to be significanly larger than S. australis.
Whole
Flower + Bud
Flower
Flower + Sepals
Habit
GeranialesGeranium
Geraniaceae
Common Crowfoot
Erodium cicutarium
I
ema
 
Whole, large
Whole, in Flower
Whole, small, in Flower
Whole, with Red Growth
Red Parasite?
Leaf
Buds
Flower
Seed
LamialesForget-me-not
Boraginaceae
Sweet Hound's-tongue
Cynoglossum suaveolens
Na
a
 
Whole, profile (~300mm)
Whole, above
Leaves (rotated)
Buds
Young Flower
Old Flower
Flower, under
LamialesForget-me-not
Boraginaceae
Purple Peril
Echium plantagineum
I
ema
Other Common NamesSalvation Jane, Purple Viper's Bugloss, Blueweed, Lady Campbell Weed, Riverina Bluebell or Paterson's Curse
 
Seedling Rosettes
Small Flowering
Medium Flowering
LamialesForget-me-not
Boraginaceae
Potato Weed
Heliotropium europaeum
I
em
Other Common NameCommon Heliotrope

We recently discovered our 1st infestation of this invasive weed. The seed was probably brought in by a native animal. Fortunately it is by our entrance track, so will be able to keep an eye on the location for any further outbreaks.
It flourashes in wet summers here in SA (which we've just had), but also grows in drier seasons; with the seeds geminating after warm weather & rain (eg late spring). It is a toxic plant (attacking the liver) and kills livestock (sheep & cattle), possibly taking years after grazzing on this weed for symptoms & death to occur
"Naturalised"
Whole, healthy
Small, hidden
Perspective
Leaf, above
Leaf, under
Flower heads
Single flower stem
Fruit, seed pod, seeded
LamialesForget-me-not
Boraginaceae
Hairy Sheepweed
Neatostema apulum
I
em
Other Common NameBlackweed
 
Whole (~250mm tall)
Leaves
Flower & Bud, above
Flower & Bud, under
LamialesForget-me-not
Boraginaceae
Burr Stickseed
Omphalolappula concava
NT
em
 
Young Seedling
Larger Seedling
Whole
Small Patch
Structure
Leaves & Stem
Leaf & Stem with Aphid
Bud
Fruit, Dried Flower & Bud
Flower, Profile
Flower, Front
Flower Done, Bracts Opening
Fruit Stem
New Fruit
Fruit (4 Nutlets)
Hooks on the end of the Burrs
Older Fruit/Burr
LamialesMint
Lamiaceae
Horehound
Marrubium vulgare
I
em
Other Common NamesHound's Bane, Marrube, Marvel, White Horehound or Woolly Horehound

#3 Enemy: Bush with green grey foliage, very hard to spot in saltbush. Hides well.
Seeds last around 10 years in the soil, so long term monitoring of an infected area is required to ensure it doesn't become re-established.
Seedling
LamialesMint
Lamiaceae
Wild Sage
Salvia verbenaca var verbenaca
I
em
We found one of these on Ellura and took forever to work it out. In SA, it is considered a synonym of Salvia verbanaca.
However it's different. It's leaves are not as lobed and fatter. It doesn't smell when crushed. It has red tints throughout the stems & leaves. Unfortunately the flower stem was eaten before we could get a photo of the flowers; only managing to photo buds.
It is certainly a strong relationship, and a sub-species makes sense to us. But being a synonym doesn't.
In the past they have been called "Type A" & "Type B". Now they have names.
This sub-species is recognised on the national ANBG web site.
Whole, above (~80mm wide)
Whole, profile
Seedling
Stems
Basal Leaf
Stem Leaves
Bud stem (~5mm bud length)
Bud stem, profile
LamialesMint
Lamiaceae
Wild Sage
Salvia verbenaca var vernalis
I
em
Other Common NamesClary Sage, Salvia, Verbena Sage, Vervain Sage, Vervain Salvia or Wild clary

#2 Enemy: Called "Sage" due to its strong smell.
Will decimate an area over time if allowed. Likes depressions. Currently invasive throughout Ellura.
A staged approach will be used to eradicate:
1 Spray with Glyphosate on tracks (car, wombat & roo) to stop spread
2 Spray open & infested areas to stop volume seed generation
3 Manual removal from under natives (primarily saltbush)
4 Monitor infested areas for 10 years to finalise.
Small
Large
Several Large
Removal -EXTRA-
LamialesMint
Lamiaceae
Grey Germander
Teucrium racemosum
LC
m
 
Whole
Patch
Perspective
Structure
Buds & Flowers
Flower Centre
LamialesPlantain
Plantaginaceae
Clay Plantain
Plantago cunninghamii
NT
em
Other Common NameSago
 
Whole
Leaf, whole
Leaf, close up
Bud Stem
Flower Head
Flowers (~4mm long each)
LamialesPlantain
Plantaginaceae
Crowned Plantain
Plantago turrifera
RA
em
Other Common NameSmall Sago
 
Whole
Seedling
Leaf
Flowers
LilialesColchicaceaeEarly Nancy
Wurmbea dioica ssp brevifolia
LC
em
SynonymAnguillaria dioica

Other Common NameHarbinger of Spring

What a happy little flowering plant this is.
It's like it's got a target painted on it saying "Look at me, spring is here!"

Very bold, 6 petaled (actually 3 petals + 3 sepals), white flowers rimmed with deep maroon/purple.
With up to 5 or more flowers on one little stem.
It has 3 leaves, one basal, two wrapped from the stem (one in the mid section, the other under the flowers). The higher leaf looks like a hand holding the flower stem.
It's been 10 years since we've seen one of these flowers and were so pleased to find them on Ellura.
The top leaf being truncated at the point of narrowing is diagnostic. However, you need to ensure it hasn't been eaten!
In the photo "Patch of Fruiting Females" you can see all the short upper leaves (hence ssp brevifolia), which are starting to dry & yellow.
Whole, Male
Whole, Females
Patch (15 or so) Males
Patch of Fruiting Females
Male Flower Stem
New Male Flower
Older Male Flower
Older Male Flower
Mature Male Flower
Male Flower Finished
Female Flower Stem
Female Bud
Female Flower
Fruiting
Fruit Stem
Fruit
LilialesColchicaceaeEarly Nancy
Wurmbea dioica ssp dioica
Na
a
Notice the 3 leaves; all 3 with significant length past the point where the leaves narrow.
In the "Whole" photo you can see the upper leaf is quite long compared with ssp brevifolia above.
As it turns out the purple patterns are not diagnostic in that the flowers can be totally white. We've not seen this, but variations in thickness, colour and purpled edged petals are all variable within the species.
Female, whole
Female, Leaf lengths
Female, Basal Leaf
Female, Middle Leaf
Female, New Flowers, above
Female, New Flowers, profile
Female, Flowers, fully open
LilialesLily
Liliaceae
Bulbine Lily
Bulbine bulbosa
Na
a
Other Common NameNative Leek
 
Whole
Bud Stem
Buds, One Opening
Flower Centre
Flower, Profile
Flower, Finished
LilialesLily
Liliaceae
Milkmaids
Burchardia umbellata
RA
ma
 
Patch
Buds & New Flower
Buds, Bud Opening & New Flower
Flowers with White Centre
Flower Centre
Flower Beaten by the Rain
Old Flower
Fruit
LilialesLily
Liliaceae
Yellow Rush-lily
Tricoryne elatior
RA
ma
Other Common NameMallee Rush-lily
 
Flower
MalpighialesSpurge
Euphorbiaceae
Caustic Spurge
Euphorbia drummondii
LC
em
SynonymChamaesyce drummondii

Other Common NamesCaustic Creeper, Caustic Weed, Creeping Caustic, Flat Spurge, Mat-spurge or Milkweed
 
Whole
Leaves & Stems
Flowers & Young Fruit
Over-ripe Fruit
MalvalesMallow
Malvaceae
Clustered lawrencia
Lawrencia glomerata
NT
em
Other Common NameSmall golden-spike

Thank you Glenys & Graham Pearce for identifying this species for us

A small plant that dies off in the summer heat.
Seedlings look like Corrugated Sida, but with less lobes on the leaves.
Overall it looks a bit like a Chenopod, and hence hard to identify.
Dried Whole Plant
Remaining Leaves
Seed Head
MalvalesMallow
Malvaceae
Limestone Sida
Sida spodochroma
VU
em
Other Common NameSide corrugata

A very small pale / grey green plant; almost white in bright sunlight.
It gets eaten, by summer, and then re-sprouts in winter.
There is a question mark whether it's a synonym with S. corrugata.
We finally saw it flower. Just had to wait and let nature takes it course. Most likely a combination of weather and reduced grazing allowed it to flourish. We have seen many more new plants since; implying the flowers seeded and germinated.
Above
Profile
Whole, in bud
Flower, above
Flower, profile
MalvalesDaphne
Thymelaeaceae
Small Riceflower
Pimelea humilis
RA
ma
 
Whole
Patch
Stem & Leaves
Buds & Floral Leaves
Bud Opening
Mature Flowers
OxalidalesSorrel
Oxalidaceae
Native Sorrel
Oxalis perennans
LC
ema
Other Common NamesGrassland Wood-sorrel or Tall-fruit Oxalis

It is very similar to it's cousin the Soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae).
However, it is smaller, has a creeping habit and does not have bulbs.
Whole
Whole
Leaf
Leaf, dappled
Bud
Bud about to Open
Flower
Flower, Profile
Flower, Dried
Seed Pod
Grass & Sedge
Poales
Small Herb
Centrolepidaceae
Dwarf Aphelia
Aphelia pumilio
Na
a
Thank you Peri Coleman for identifying this species for us

A strange little plant with petalless flowers. Not much larger than moss, the top of the flowers stand at about 10mm, with leaves around 20mm long. The flowers are a fan shape array of bracts.
Single Plant
Patch
Flower, face on
Flower, edge
Flower, finished
Grass & Sedge
Poales
Grass
Poaceae
Feather Spear-grass
Austrostipa elegantissima
LC
em
Thank you Darren Schmitke for confirming the identification of this species
 
Seed Head
Seed Head, close up
SaxifragalesOrpine
Crassulaceae
Dense Stonecrop
Crassula colorata
LC
em
Other Common NameDense Crassula
 
Whole
A Patch
Leaves & Flowers
SaxifragalesOrpine
Crassulaceae
Spreading Stonecrop
Crassula decumbens
LC
ma
 
Whole (~50mm wide)
Bud Bracts
Bud Above
Flower, plus fruit
Fruit, with moss spore capsule
SaxifragalesOrpine
Crassulaceae
Australian Stonecrop
Crassula tetramera
LC
em
SynonymCrassula sieberana ssp tetramera

Other Common NamesAustral Crassula, Austral Stonecrop, Sieber Crassula or Silver Crassula
 
Whole, Beige Stem
Whole, Red Stem
Sparse Patch
Clustered Patch
Leaf Texture & Outline
A Small Bunch Budding
Flowers
Flowers Growing Stalks going to Seed
Gone Red while Seeding
Seeded
Drying Up
SolanalesBindweed
Convolvulaceae
Australian Bindweed
Convolvulus angustissimus ssp angustissimus
RA
em
SynonymConvolvulus erubescens

Other Common NamePink Convolvulus

Pretty little pink flower (about the size of a finger-nail) with green leaves and runners that can climb.
The flower has a unique way of opening by "unfolding"; as it is a single petal.
The fold lines are plainly visible. It gives it the appearance of an origami (paper) flower.
Whole
Whole, profile
Seedling
Leaves
Flower
SolanalesBindweed
Convolvulaceae
Grassland Bindweed
Convolvulus angustissimus ssp peninsularum
RA
em
 
Whole
Whole, new season growth
Structure
New Leaf
Older Leaf
Flower
Flower, back
SolanalesBindweed
Convolvulaceae
Grassy Bindweed
Convolvulus remotus
LC
m
 
Structure
Leaves
Bud
Flower
SolanalesNightshade
Solanaceae
Small-flowered Tobacco
Nicotiana goodspeedii
LC
em
 
Whole Plant
Base
Flower
SolanalesNightshade
Solanaceae
Silverleaf Nightshade
Solanum elaeagnifolium
I
m
Other Common NameTomato Weed

Similar Species: Silver Goodenia

Thank you Andrew Allanson for identifying this species for us
 
Whole
Leaf, above
Spikes, stem & leaf back
Wilted flower
ZygophyllalesCaltrop
Zygophyllaceae
Pointed Twinleaf
Zygophyllum apiculatum
LC
em
Other Common NamesCommon Twinleaf or Gallweed

Large round green leaves, split in two (hence the "twinleaf").
Flowers are rich yellow, 5 petals, with a green centre.
For us, the common names are a misnomer as the Shrubby Twinleaf is far more numerous on Ellura than the common. And you can't see the points on the leaves until you get up close & personal.
We refer to this one as "broad-leaved" to avoid confusion.
We are in information overload, so haven't managed to learn all the scientific names yet (just can't seem to remember apiculatum .... it'll happen
Whole Plant
Structure
Buds, Flowers & Leaves
ZygophyllalesCaltrop
Zygophyllaceae
Dwarf Twinleaf
Zygophyllum ovatum
LC
em
A very small plant with green flower & leaves with red stems.
Whole
Leaf
Flower
New Fruit
Drying Fruit & Leaves

Copyright © 1996- Brett & Marie Smith. All Rights Reserved.
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