Ellura Sanctuary, Swan Reach, SA, 5354
    
Rules of Thumb: If it's attacked by insects, it's probably a native. If it's got minute flowers, it's probably a native.
Stat'NotesThumbnails: 268.   
Animals (Animalia) - Jointed Legs (Arthropoda) - Spiders, Scorpions, Mites & Ticks (Arachnida) - Introduced Species
Spiders
Araneae
Daddy Long Legs
Pholcidae
Daddy-long-legs
Smeringopus cf natalensis
I
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Other Common NamesDaddy Long Legs, Daddy Longlegs & Daddy Long-legs

Thank you Mark Newton for identifying this species for us

Very difficult to be certain of species, with out proper examination (as with many of the spiders here).
This genus is unusual for a spider in that the male & female are the same size. Mark indicates the larger palps imply the adult here is a male.
Dorsal, ~6mm
Body, close up
Eye arrangement
Ventral, body
Ventral, head
Instar, under palps
Spiders
Araneae
Comb-footed Spider
Theridiidae
Cupboard Spider
Steatoda cf grossa
I
a
Other Common NameBrown House Spider

These will make you sick for a few days if bitten. It's related to the redback, so it's quite understandable.
It's possibly a different species (as will the case with all our inverts), but S. grossa originated in Canada.

Animals (Animalia) - Jointed Legs (Arthropoda) - Insects (Insecta) - Introduced Species
Flies
Diptera
Bot Fly
Oestridae
Sheep Nasal Bot Fly
Oestrus ovis
I
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Dorsal
Anterior
Ant Bee Wasps
Hymenoptera
Long-tongued Bee
Bee: Apidae
European Honey Bee
Apis mellifera
I
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Other Common NameCommercial Honey Bee

Most people think of these insects in a positive light, but like all introduced species are an environmental headache and should be eradicated where possible. Please don't allow bee keepers to use your bush block for bees. Would you allow someone to plough your native vegetation to grow crops? European Bees are just as devastating, but the damage is hidden (eg using up precious hollows used by our birds and reptiles), spreading over many kilometres to neighbouring properties & reserves. Our native bees are also less aggressive and solitary (in SA).
If you thought all European Bees don't look alike, you'd be right. Peri Coleman said
"There are three main races of bees in Australia, and a very few of two other races. Main races used by bee keepers:
1. Italian (yellow banded): have 5 yellow bands, but the Ligurian sub-race has less than 5 yellow bands & have a yellow queen. The Ligurian bees of Kangaroo Island are a sub-race of Italian bees, and the early settlement bees were blackish coloured "Black Germans", but I don't know if any of these are still cultivated
2. Caucasian (bigger, grey): are dark grey, hardly banded at all, and have a long body
3. Carniolan (smallest): have creamy light bands which gives them a greyish look, and are smaller than Italians. They have a dark queen.
Quarantine in North Queensland keeps a close eye out for Asian honeybees as they are likely to bring in Nosema disease.
It is considered they are most likely to get here via shipping to a northern port or by island hopping from New Guinea."
Female worker
New Colony
New Colony
Cockroaches
Blattodea
Cockroach
Blattidae
Oriental Cockroach
Blatta Orientalis
I
a
 
Beetles
Coleoptera
Ladybird
Coccinellidae
Variegated Ladybird
Hippodamia variegata
I
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As it's name suggests, a very variable species. Usually with white stripes on it's pronotum, but sometimes not.
Introduced from Europe and used as a biological control of cotton aphids in crops, it is now wide spread and an environmental pest.
Our apologies for the moth scales interfering with these photo's. They were shed in the container by the previous occupant, not part of this species.
Dorsal
Profile
Beetles
Coleoptera
Weevil
Curculionidae
Sitona Weevil
Sitona discoideus
I
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Dorsal, ~5mm
Profile
Beetles
Coleoptera
Skin Beetle
Dermestidae
Varied Carpet Beetle
Anthrenus verbasci
I
a
Similar Species: Brown Globular Springtail  
Dorsal
Anterior
Ventral
Beetles
Coleoptera
Scarab Beetle
Scarabaeidae
Sandy Dung Beetle
Euoniticellus fulvus
I
a
 
Dorsal, ~9mm
Beetles
Coleoptera
Darkling Beetle
Tenebrionidae
Egyptian Beetle
Blaps polychresta
I
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Other Common NameGiant Darkling Beetle

Large black beetle, approximately 40mm long (head to tail) with a projection out the rear end.
Butterflies & Moths
Lepidoptera
Oecophorid Moth
:Gelechioidea Oecophoridae
Brown House Moth
Hofmannophila pseudospretella
I
a
 
Dorsal, natural colour
Dorsal, sharper
Profile, ~8mm
Ventral, wingspan ~20mm
Butterflies & Moths
Lepidoptera
Geometer
:Geometroidea Geometridae
Bitou Tip Moth
Comostolopsis germana
I
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Other Common NameEmerald Moth

Introduced into SA (Adelaides Hills & Murraylands), NSW & other areas from the lates 1980's; to control Boneseed & Horehound. It was thought to have died out in SA, but is seems it didn't.
Butterflies & Moths
Lepidoptera
Plume Moth
:Pterophorioidea Pterophoridae
Horehound Plume Moth
Wheeleria spilodactylus
I
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Butterflies & Moths
Lepidoptera
Diamondback Moth
:Yponomeutoid Plutellidae
Cabbage Moth
Plutella xylostella
I
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Other Common NameDiamondback Moth

This introduced species is highly variable in it's colours. The antennae always have banding, however, and point forward.
S2: Pale
S3: Darker
S3: Profile
S6: Profile, ~6mm
S6: Vental, wingspan ~15mm
Butterflies & Moths
Lepidoptera
Brown Butterfly
Papilionoidea: Nymphalidae
Wanderer
Danaus plexippus
I
a
Other Common NameMonarch

While this butterfly comes from the Americas. It's only food source is the introduced Milkweed.
There is some discussion if it arrives under it's own steam to the Eastcoast of Australia. Even so, it wouldn't be able to propogate without the weed. Regardless, it's not native to SA.
Male, dorsal
Male, underwing
Male, Sex Marks
Male, Head
Female, dorsal
Female, underwings
Butterflies & Moths
Lepidoptera
White & Yellow Butterfly
Papilionoidea: Pieridae
Small Cabbage White
Pieris rapae
I
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Other Common NameCabbage White
 
Underside Wings
Topside Wings

Animals (Animalia) - Jointed Legs (Arthropoda) - Crustaceans (Malacostraca) - Introduced Species
Peracarid Crustaceans
Isopoda
Terrestrial Crustacean
Armadillidiidae
Pill Bug
Armadillidium vulgare
I
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Other Common NamesPill-bug, Pillbug, Roly-poly, Slater or Woodlouse
 
Dorsal + size
Ventral
Eyes + Pill Shape

Animals (Animalia) - Chordates (Chordata) - Birds (Aves) - Introduced Species
Perching Birds
Passeriformes
Sparrow
Passeridae
House Sparrow
Passer domesticus
I
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Photograph yet to be loaded.

Animals (Animalia) - Chordates (Chordata) - Mammals (Mammalia) - Introduced Species
Even-toed Ungulates
Artiodactyla
Cloven-hoofed Mammal
Bovidae
Feral Goat
Capra hircus
I
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Other Common NameGoat
 
Footprint
Placental mammals
Carnivora
Canine
Canidae
Red Fox
Vulpes vulpes
I
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Other Common NameDAMN Fox
 
Approaching
Who's that?
Better get outta here
Placental mammals
Carnivora
Cat
Felidae
Feral Cat
Felis Catus
I
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Kangaroos & Wombats
Diprotodontia
Koala
Phascolarctidae
Koala
Phascolarctos cinereus ssp victor
I
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While considered cute and cuddly, wild animals should not be approached. Animals that people hold in zoo's are tame. As with any large wild animal, they can inflict severe injuries if cornered. Having said that, they are not openly aggressive.
A male's mating call is a loud, deep, sickening sound. It's a much bigger sound than their size suggests. This is on purpose; the ladies like their boys to be big, so the boys oblige

They love our stringy bark gum trees and visit regularly.
We also often see them walking on the roads through the hills. Unfortunately they don't last very long on the South Eastern Freeway.

You may think we've made a mistake ... of course Koala's aren't introduced! Well, yes they were; locally at least. Introduced to the Adelaide Hills in the middle of last century. So while an Australian native, not a native where these photo's were taken.
This can be related to Cootamundra Wattle. A NSW native, now an "introduced" weed species in the Adelaide Hills.
Male, about to fall
Male, saved himself
Male, retreating
I love my tree
Morning sleepy head
My, what sharp claws you have
These hands are made for climbing
Mum & Bubs
Hello little one
Hares & Rabbits
Lagomorpha
Hare & Rabbit
Leporidae
European Hare
Lepus europaeus
I
ema
Other Common NamesJack Rabbit or Hare
 
Profile
Hiding
Going
Gone
Hares & Rabbits
Lagomorpha
Hare & Rabbit
Leporidae
Feral European Rabbit
Oryctolagus cuniculus
I
ema
Other Common NameBLOODY Rabbit
 
Rodents
Rodentia
Murid
Muridae
House Mouse
Mus domesticus
I
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Animals (Animalia) - Molluscs (Mollusca) - Gastropods, Slugs, And Snails (Gastropoda) - Introduced Species
Land Snails & Slugs
Stylommatophora
Small Land Snail
Hygromiidae
Common White Snail
Cernuella virgata
I
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Other Common NamesCommon Garden Snail, Maritime Gardensnail, Vineyard snail
 
Whole, hole
Whole (shell ~6mm diameter)
Dead, hole
Whole, dead

Fungi (Fungi) - Chytridio (Chytridiomycota) - Rust Fungi (Chytridiomycetes) - Introduced Species
Rusts
Chytridiales
Crowfoot Rust
Synchytriaceae
Common Crowfoot Rust
Synchytrium papillatum
I
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This rust is growing on Common Crowfoot (Erodium cicutarium) which is an introduced species.
We believe each species of this type of fungus evolves to only grow on one plant species.
As such, this species of fungus must also be introduced?

Plants (Plantae) - Introduced Species
Daisies
Asterales
Daisy
Asteraceae
Capeweed
Arctotheca calendula
I
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Whole, distressed
Habit, healthy, ~150mm high
Leaf
Bud
Flower, ~50mm wide
Flower, under
Daisies
Asterales
Daisy
Asteraceae
Saffron Thistle
Carthamus lanatus
I
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Other Common NamesOWWW THAT HURTS!, Distaff Thistle, False Star Thistle or Woolly Star Thistle

A few scattered plants found & removed from Ellura
VERY prickly & stiff plant at all stages. Tall, green with cream/yellow flowers.
Prickles will go straight through leather gloves, weed bags, etc.
Daisies
Asterales
Daisy
Asteraceae
Maltese Cockspur
Centaurea melitensis
I
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Other Common NamesMaltese Star Thistle, Cockspur Thistle, Malta Thistle, Maltese Centaury, Napa Star Thistle, Saucy Jack, Tocalote Star Thistle, Wild Irishman, Yellow Burr Cockspur or Yellow Star Thistle
 
Habit
Bud
Flower
Daisies
Asterales
Daisy
Asteraceae
Flaxleaf Fleabane
Conyza bonariensis
I
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Mature plant is about 300mm tall; single stemed with flowers bunching at the top.
The flowers don't have petals.
Early Budding
Later Budding (+6 days)
Fully in flower (+9 days)
Leaves
Early Buds
Flower, fully open
Flower Head, above
Flower Head, profile
Daisies
Asterales
Daisy
Asteraceae
Gazania
Gazania linearis
I
ema
 
Weed Art
Daisies
Asterales
Daisy
Asteraceae
Scotch Thistle
Onopordum acanthium
I
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Other Common NamesCotton Thistle, Giant Thistle, Heraldic Thistle, Silver Thistle or Woolly Thistle

Larger & bushier than Saffron, harsh and prickly.
Purple flowers
Photograph yet to be loaded.
Daisies
Asterales
Daisy
Asteraceae
Stemless Thistle
Onopordum acaulon
I
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Other Common NamesFlat thistle, Horse Thistle, Stemless Onopordon or White thistle

Scattered seedlings have been found & removed. All clear at this stage.
Seedlings are soft and easy to handle. Mature plants are very prickly & large, making removal difficult. Slow growing and easy to find seedlings with regular inspections.
Silver grey in colour and has no discernible stem
Seedling
Seeding
Daisies
Asterales
Daisy
Asteraceae
False Sowthistle
Reichardia tingitana
I
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Whole, in bud
Whole, in flower
Whole, small, in flower
Leaf
Bud
Flower, profile, with Aphids
Flower, profile
Flower, Above
Seeded
Daisies
Asterales
Daisy
Asteraceae
Prickly Sow Thistle
Sonchus asper
I
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Upper leaf, heavy rainfall
Flower, above
Flower, profile
Daisies
Asterales
Daisy
Asteraceae
Sow Thistle
Sonchus oleraceus
I
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Other Common NamesCommon sow thistle or Milk Thistle
 
Photograph yet to be loaded.
Asparagus
Asparagales
Orchid
Orchidaceae
African Orchid
Disa bracteata
I
a
SynonymMonadenia Bracteata

A very invasive weed that's difficult to eradicate. Partly because they ALWAYS have two tubers. The first one comes up with the plant fairly easily, the second not so much. The second bulb will continue the plants life if not removed. Once the flower head has seeded it's very difficult to extract the plant without spreading seed further. The only way we know is to very genlty tilt the plant into a plastic bag (without any sudden movement) to catch anything that falls off and then dig it up. It's quite possible that cut & spray will work, but we haven't tried that.
Whole, in flower
Whole, eaten
Seedling
In Bud & Flowering
Flower Head
Flower
Going to seed
Asparagus
Asparagales
Iris
Iridaceae
Thread Iris
Moraea setifolia
I
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Other Common NameTwo-leaved Cape Tulip

Invasive throughout the region. Difficult to eradicate due to their thin leaf.
Wombats like the bulbs and plough the soil searching for the them. This is not natural behaviour for them and is very destructive to the soil crust and natural order of things.
Competes with native grasses.
Has a single pale purple flower and two grass-like leaves (often one dries early leaving only one leaf).
While it looks nothing like it many people think it's nut grass. Probably because the bulbs are like nuts and the few leaves are very grass like.
The flower is a dead give away it's not grass.
Kangaroos eat the dried leaves in summer. Possibly because other food is more scarce; or because it's weaker & easier to chew once it's died. It's leaves are incredibly strong & thin. When trying to pull out other weeds if you accidentally grab a Thread Iris leaf as well, you'll have no chance of getting either out.
The green leaf is toxic to stock. Consumption of 1kg of green leaves will kill a cow within 24 hours. Wombats don't seem to be able to digest it very easily, so fill up on it and can starve to death if native grass food sources are not available.
Flowering
Bulbs
Asparagus
Asparagales
Iris
Iridaceae
Guildford Grass
Romulea rosea var australis
I
a
 
Whole
Flower, above
Flower, profile
Asparagus
Asparagales
Iris
Iridaceae
Guildford Grass
Romulea rosea var communis
I
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Whole
Flower, above
Flower, under
Asparagus
Asparagales
Iris
Iridaceae
Guildford Grass
Romulea rosea var reflexa
I
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Whole
Flower, above
Flower, profile
Asparagus
Asparagales
Grass Tree
Xanthorrhoeaceae
Onion Weed
Asphodelus fistulosus
I
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Other Common NamesNOT MORE ONION WEED ! Onion-leafed Asphodel or Pink Asphodel

#1 Enemy: Loves 250mm/yr rainfall. We have it under control.
Will decimate an area, regardless of grazing, killing saltbush, zygophylum, etc, as it goes.
Vigorous; will germinate, flower and seed within 3 weeks in spring. 90%+ of seed germinates in first year.
Resilient: never leave removed plants on the ground. They will flower & seed (out of the ground)! Hard to poison. Needs good wetting agent.

We've written a discussion paper on this to help you control your outbreak.
Click here to download (it's about 2.7mb) Updated 11 AM, 06 April 2014
Flowering
Flower
Carrots
Apiales
Carrot
Apiaceae
Grey Hare's Ear
Bupleurum semicompositum
I
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Thank you Darren Schmitke for identifying this species for us

A simple thank you just isn't enough. We didn't even know where to start with this species and Darren spent many evenings investigating it. After we had given up, and Darren almost had, he found it. We were elated and disappointed at the same time. Elated the puzzle was solved, but disappointed that after all that work it turned out to be an introduced species. Here's hoping that by being on this web site it helps others know they can remove it; and Darren's work will be put to good use.
It occurs primarily in disturbed locations on Ellura and may be useful to reduce erosion while natives reclaim their ground. It's heaviest where we've removed heavy investations of onion weed, but doesn't have anywhere near the destructive properties of onion weed. As such, it's weak and natives are stronger. It is classed as "Naturalised" (a term we despise) and an "Environmental Weed" (ie it doesn't impact farmers crops).
The flowers are tiny; and go against the rule of thumb of small flowers being native. They are petalless (petals 0). The apparant petals are actually 5 sepals which start green and turn red with age. The flower has 5 stamen. The 5 bracts (leaf like structures) are toothed and form a cup holding up to about 8 flowers.
The flower heads are on varying length stalks (0 to ~10mm). A flower head can throw 5 stalks with more flower heads; in fact it'll even throw another "branch".
The plant is almost grass like, with the base of each leaf curving round the stem at least at each branch. The branches are hexegon.
The structure tends to create a ceme of flowers (ie one branch is a flower head, the other goes higher until another fork or terminates in a flowerhead).
The flowers are on top of the fruit, which splits in 2 when it dries; and goes a pale lilac colour.
While trying to describe this plant one realises why there are so many botanical terms to describe the huge array of features a plant can exhibit; in a succinct way, unlike this novel
Whole, Bushy, ~150mm tall
Whole, Small, Thin
Whole, Small, Stocky
Whole, Finishing
Patch, green, above
Patch, drying, profile
Structure
Leaf
New Flower Head Forming, with buds
Buds, ~0.5mm wide each
Bud Opening (right)
Flower Head throwing 5 more
Flower Head Stalks, profile
Flower Head throwing a Branch
Flower Open (centre)
Fruits, Flowers Finished
Toothed Bracts
Fruits , ~1mm wide each
Fruits, profile, on stalks
Fruits Splitting in 2
Fruit Dried
BrassicalesMustard
Brassicaceae or Cruciferae
Flax-leaf Alyssum
Alyssum linifolia
I
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Thank you Renate & Glenys for identifying this species for us

A very strange plant with brown, circular, flat, disk fruits.
These discs dry to a paper thin shell, then drop the two seeds contained within.
Also has strange tufted short hairs growing from it's leaves & stem.
Whole, Profile
Whole, Above
Patch, Dropping Seed
Leaf
Bud, Flower & Fruit - Above
Flower - Profile
Fruit
Fruit Stem
Seed in Pod
BrassicalesMustard
Brassicaceae or Cruciferae
Wild Turnip
Brassica tournefortii
I
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Other Common NamesAfrican Mustard, Asian Mustard, Long fruited Wild Turnip, Mediterranean Turnip, Sahara Mustard or Tournefort's Birdrape

Not a major problem at Ellura. Removed when found.
One of the few plants than can grow under Mallee.
Small yellow flower, long green seed pods. Tall, straggly, hairy stems with lobed leaves staying near the ground.
BrassicalesMustard
Brassicaceae or Cruciferae
Wards Weed
Carrichtera annua
I
em
Invasive throughout the region. Difficult to eradicate as it's in such hugh numbers. The areas we have weeded have shown a big return of native forbs.
Seedlings are purple before turning luscious green.
Grazed by wombats & roos.
Replaces native grass.
Purple Seedling
Small Flower, ~5mm wide
Dried Seed
BrassicalesMustard
Brassicaceae or Cruciferae
Smooth Mustard
Sisymbrium erysimoides
I
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Other Common NamesFrench rocket or Mediterranean rocket
 
Whole
Whole
Small Patch
Large Patch
Leaves
Compressed Leaf
Buds & Flowers
Buds & Flowers
Flower, Above
Flowers, Profile
Flowers & Seed Pods
BrassicalesMignonette
Resedaceae
Cut-leaf Mignonette
Reseda luteola
I
m
Other Common NamesDyer's Mignonette, Dyer's Rocket, Dyer's Weed, Mignonette, Weld, Wild Mignonette, Yellow Weed

Forms a large round rosette, then shoots tall seed heads.
Very deep roots which easily break near the rosette to later recover.
Manual removal requires as much root as possible to be removed.
We remove at least 100mm.
Rosette
In Seed
Betalains
Caryophyllales
Carnation
Caryophyllaceae
Mouse-ear Chickweed
Cerastium glomeratum
I
ema
A hairy leaved weed. A white flower that has 5 petals which are deeply lobed and can look like 10 petals.
On Ellura it is more prostrate than in the Adelaide Hills.
Prostrate
Upright
New Flower + Bud
Flower, fully open
Fruit
Betalains
Caryophyllales
Carnation
Caryophyllaceae
Mallee Catchfly
Silene apetala
I
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Other Common NameSand Catchfly

Tall straggly weed with tiny flowers.
Basal Leaves Seed Pod & Stem
Top Leaves & Seed Pod
Stalk & Leaves
Top Pods & Seeds
Flower & Bud
CucurbitalesGourd
Cucurbitaceae
Paddymelon
Citrullus colocynthis
I
m
Other Common NamePaddy Melon

These can grow much larger than shown here. But this is a good comparision between the smooth and prickly paddymelons, as well as a mallee leaf
Fruit
Fruit, compared with large glove
CucurbitalesGourd
Cucurbitaceae
Prickly Paddymelon
Cucumis myriocarpus
I
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Other Common NamePaddy Melon
 
Fruit
FabalesLegume
Fabaceae or Leguminosae
Burr Medic
Medicago polymorpha
I
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Other Common NamesCreeping Burr, Medic Clover, Rough Medic, Toothed Medic, Burr Clover, Toothed Burr Clover or Trefoil
 
Whole
Leaf & Old Flower
Flower, front
Flower, profile
FabalesLegume
Fabaceae or Leguminosae
Small-leaf Burr Medic
Medicago praecox
I
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Other Common NamesPlain Trefoil or Small-leaved Burr Medic
 
Several
Leaf
Seed
FabalesLegume
Fabaceae or Leguminosae
Subterraneum Clover
Trifolium subterraneum
I
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Other Common NameSubterranean Trefoil
 
Patch in flower
Habit
Leaf, ~15mm wide
Leaf, under
Flower, ~5x3mm wide
Flower, profile
GentianalesGentian
Gentianaceae
Red Centaury
Centaurium erythraea
I
a
Similar Species: Branched Centaury
You can see here that Red Centaury's habit is quite different to both Branched Centaury & Spike Centaury, but the flowers look identical from above.
The basal leaves stay green during flowering while the other two dry up quickly.
This species is also larger and more lucious than the other two.
Whole, habit
Seedling
Basal Leaves
Flowers
Flower, Buds + Sepals
GentianalesGentian
Gentianaceae
Branched Centaury
Centaurium tenuiflorum
I
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Similar Species: Spike Centaury
Can be difficult to distinguish from Spike Centaury on habit alone; particularly for small plants withonly one stem and one flower. However, the comparison of the sepals of the 3 similar plants here shows how unique Branched Centaury is from the other two with no distance between the tip of the sepals and the separation/bend of the petals.
Whole
Habit + Buds
Basal Leaves
Flower
Flower + Sepals
GeranialesGeranium
Geraniaceae
Common Crowfoot
Erodium cicutarium
I
ema
 
Whole, large
Whole, in Flower
Whole, small, in Flower
Whole, with Red Growth
Red Parasite?
Leaf
Buds
Flower
Seed
LamialesForget-me-not
Boraginaceae
Purple Peril
Echium plantagineum
I
ema
Other Common NamesSalvation Jane, Purple Viper's Bugloss, Blueweed, Lady Campbell Weed, Riverina Bluebell or Paterson's Curse
 
Seedling Rosettes
Small Flowering
Medium Flowering
LamialesForget-me-not
Boraginaceae
Potato Weed
Heliotropium europaeum
I
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Other Common NameCommon Heliotrope

We recently discovered our 1st infestation of this invasive weed. The seed was probably brought in by a native animal. Fortunately it is by our entrance track, so will be able to keep an eye on the location for any further outbreaks.
It flourashes in wet summers here in SA (which we've just had), but also grows in drier seasons; with the seeds geminating after warm weather & rain (eg late spring). It is a toxic plant (attacking the liver) and kills livestock (sheep & cattle), possibly taking years after grazzing on this weed for symptoms & death to occur
"Naturalised"
Whole, healthy
Small, hidden
Perspective
Leaf, above
Leaf, under
Flower heads
Single flower stem
Fruit, seed pod, seeded
LamialesForget-me-not
Boraginaceae
Hairy Sheepweed
Neatostema apulum
I
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Other Common NameBlackweed
 
Whole, ~250mm tall
Leaves
Flower & Bud, above
Flower & Bud, under
LamialesMint
Lamiaceae
Horehound
Marrubium vulgare
I
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Other Common NamesHound's Bane, Marrube, Marvel, White Horehound or Woolly Horehound

#3 Enemy: Bush with green grey foliage, very hard to spot in saltbush. Hides well.
Seeds last around 10 years in the soil, so long term monitoring of an infected area is required to ensure it doesn't become re-established.
Seedling
LamialesMint
Lamiaceae
Wild Sage
Salvia verbenaca var verbenaca
I
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We found one of these on Ellura and took forever to work it out. In SA, it is considered a synonym of Salvia verbanaca.
However it's different. It's leaves are not as lobed and fatter. It doesn't smell when crushed. It has red tints throughout the stems & leaves. Unfortunately the flower stem was eaten before we could get a photo of the flowers; only managing to photo buds.
It is certainly a strong relationship, and a sub-species makes sense to us. But being a synonym doesn't.
In the past they have been called "Type A" & "Type B". Now they have names.
This sub-species is recognised on the national ANBG web site.
Whole, above, ~80mm wide
Whole, profile
Seedling
Stems
Basal Leaf
Stem Leaves
Bud stem, ~5mm bud length
Bud stem, profile
LamialesMint
Lamiaceae
Wild Sage
Salvia verbenaca var vernalis
I
em
Other Common NamesClary Sage, Salvia, Verbena Sage, Vervain Sage, Vervain Salvia or Wild clary

#2 Enemy: Called "Sage" due to its strong smell.
Will decimate an area over time if allowed. Likes depressions. Currently invasive throughout Ellura.
A staged approach will be used to eradicate:
1 Spray with Glyphosate on tracks (car, wombat & roo) to stop spread
2 Spray open & infested areas to stop volume seed generation
3 Manual removal from under natives (primarily saltbush)
4 Monitor infested areas for 10 years to finalise.
Small
Large
Several Large
Removal
SolanalesNightshade
Solanaceae
Silverleaf Nightshade
Solanum elaeagnifolium
I
m
Other Common NameTomato Weed

Similar Species: Silver Goodenia
Thank you Andrew Allanson for identifying this species for us
 
Whole
Leaf, above
Spikes, stem & leaf back
Wilted flower
SolanalesNightshade
Solanaceae
African Boxthorn
Lycium ferocissimum
I
em
Thank you Andrew Allanson for identifying this species for us

These are a declared noxious weed.
Ooops. We thought we had the native. Our specimens generally looked very sparse and easy to mistake with the native (Lycium australe)
As soon as we realised (yesterday, 5 March 2014), we cut & swabbed them.
This situation highlights the need for web sites like ours: To help land owners & conservationists identify introduced species & eradicate them; giving natives more nutrients/water/space to grow. Which in turn gives native animals better things to eat & places to live in. Notice how natives always seem to be attacked by insects but introduced species aren't? Native insects depend on native plants to survive as they don't recognise introduced plants as useful. Birds & lizards thrive on insects. Ergo; less weeds = more birds & lizards. We've heard that if all the insects died today, man-kind would be extinct in 6 months!
Whole Bush
Structure
New Leaves
Leaves & structure
New Bud
Bud
Bud, perspective
Base of Flower; Long Stamen
Flower
Flower
Dried Flower
Dried Flower, Fruit Forming
Fruit Further Developing
Fruit, Still Green
Green Fruit, Perspective with Structure
Ripe Red Fruit

Plants (Plantae) - Liverworts (Marchantiophyta) - Liverworts (Marchantiopsida) - Introduced Species
Crescent Liverworts
Lunulariales
Crescent Liverwort
Lunulariaceae
Crescent-cup Liverwort
Lunularia cruciata
I
a
 
Photograph yet to be loaded.

Copyright © 1996- Brett & Marie Smith. All Rights Reserved.
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